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Apple trees of the Celandine variety are high-yielding and cold-resistant. Their main advantage is high scab resistance due to the presence of an immune gene. Celandine was bred by selection, and is considered an improved version of the famous Antonovka. A detailed description of the variety, all about its advantages and disadvantages in the material below.
About the grade
Apple celandine gained popularity due to its high frost resistance and immunity to some diseases. This variety tolerates air temperatures down to -40 C, giving a bountiful harvest by the end of summer. The ripening period is described as winter. However, the first fruits are harvested at the end of August. They will not have a rich flavor, so the early harvest is used primarily for processing.
History of creation
The variety was bred by Russian breeders in 1977. Celandine is an improved hybrid of Antonovka Ordinary, adapted for growth in the climatic conditions of the northern regions of Russia. A few years later, the variety passed the necessary tests and was included in the State Register of Fruit Trees Recommended for the Central Black Earth Region.
The apple tree is medium-sized and reaches a height of 3-4 meters. The fruits are large (on average 120 grams), covered with a glossy yellow skin. The sides may have a blush of blurred vertical stripes of reddish hues.
The apples are not dessert-like, but they are highly rated on the tasting scale (from 4 to 4.5 points according to various sources). When fully ripe, the juicy fine-grained pulp has a creamy color, a pleasant sweet and sour taste and a high content of vitamin C (23 milligrams per 100 grams of pulp). The fruits are harvested at the end of August or September.
At this time, the pulp may not yet be juicy and sweet enough. Usually it is used for the manufacture of dried fruits and various types of processing: jams, compotes, juices, cider. For taste saturation, apples should lie down for at least 3-4 weeks and ripen.
The apple tree is a tree of the Rosaceae family. It blooms simultaneously with the blooming of young leaves - in late spring. The fruits begin to appear in July and finally ripen in September. Apples are rich in nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, fiber, vitamin C and minerals.
They have long been considered a healthy dietary product that increases bile secretion, improves digestion and heals kidney disease.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The main advantages of the apple trees in question and their fruits are:
- The resistance of the varietal culture to frost is up to -40 C.
- High content of ascorbic acid in fruits.
- High pectin content, which makes it possible to make jam, jelly or mousse.
- Immunity to certain diseases (due to the Vm gene).
- High and stable yield.
- Unpretentious care.
The main disadvantages of Celandine are:
- Insufficient taste of the fruit.
- Medium fit presentation.
Apple tree Celandine bears fruit early - already 3-4 years after planting. The yield is consistently high; with proper care, 100 kilograms of apples can be harvested from 1 tree. Celandine is prone to crop overload and, with abundant fruiting, the branches need support.
The main problem is that sometimes the fruits do not have time to acquire the necessary taste. But it has a temporary character, since apples can be stored in a well-ventilated dark room for six months, during which the pulp ripens and becomes saturated.
As a rule, apples are stored in wooden boxes. To increase safety, they are sprinkled with sawdust of wood-deciduous species.
Region of natural growth
Apple trees are zoned for the regions of Central Russia and the Volga region.
Diseases and pests
The main varietal feature is resistance to 4 types of scab. The disease is typical for apple trees growing in Central Russia, which are affected in large numbers by this fungus. With the arrival of early spring, it begins to attack the shoots and bark, gradually moving to the forming fruits.
Celandine's immunity to the disease is due to the presence of the Vm gene. He was grafted in the course of selection, by crossing two types of apples, one of which has this gene. However, the development of a fungal pest also does not stand still.
Recently, its mutation has been noticed, giving rise to the fifth type of scab, to which the protective effect of the gene does not extend.
For this reason, one should not neglect the preventive methods of treating apple trees from pests. In addition, celandine can be attacked by ants, aphids, caterpillars, ticks, fruit rot, black crayfish and rodents.
Pollination and care
The apple tree is an unpretentious tree. It does not require energy-consuming care, but preventive measures should not be neglected. For normal development, it is enough to pay special attention to the tree three times a year:
- In the spring (during the flowering period). Fertilizing with urea, potassium sulfate or manure is used. Shoots are trimmed to form a crown.
- Early July (fruit ripening time). The tree needs a fertilizer containing phosphorus or potassium.
- October (before waiting for frost and hibernation). Autumn pruning is carried out, which prepares the apple tree for the winter period. At this time, trees need to be freed from non-fruiting shoots, oversized branches, as well as dried shoots. Sprouted weeds, fallen fruits and leaves are carefully removed, since rot attracts pests.
Pollination is an important process in which pollen from flowers is carried by bees, butterflies and the force of the wind. The varieties bred on the basis of the Ordinary Antonovka do not know how to self-pollinate.
They need a neighborhood with pollinating apple trees, which bloom at the same time as Celandine. The best of them are considered:
- Pepin is saffron;