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Without this vegetable, it is difficult to imagine both harvesting and a vegetable garden. Since pepper is very fond of warmth and light, its planting is not possible in all conditions. This capricious culture, even in the south, will not give a bountiful harvest without proper care, and in the Urals, in general, except for leaves and flowers, you can not see anything. Recently, breeders have been trying to develop varieties that are more resistant to cold, nevertheless, growing pepper in open ground or even in a greenhouse will require a lot of effort and effort.
The best varieties for the Urals
One of the most popular types of pepper is Bulgarian. Of course, this culture requires a lot of attention and care, but it is resistant to adverse conditions such as cold and short summers.
The best varieties of bell peppers should be characterized by high productivity, resistance to difficult conditions and must have excellent taste and marketability.
Here are a few varieties and their inherent characteristics:
- Ode purple - this bush is erect, undersized with a strong stem, the fruits of which are cuboid and purple in color. The average weight of one fruit is about 100 - 150 g, the average yield is about 6 kg per square meter. One of the main advantages of this pepper variety for the Urals is disease resistance.
- Feher. The fruits of this pepper are prismatic, juicy, sweet and yellowish in color. The bush itself is of the standard type, and its maximum height is 60 cm. However, the yield of this bush is lower than the previous variety - only 2.5-5.5 kg per square meter.
- The meal has a huge yield (about 12 kg per square meter), the fruit of which weighs from 150 to 180 g. The advantage of this pepper lies in its long storage, as well as in a stable yield. Fruits are dark green in color, prismatic, with very juicy and tender pulp. This type of bush is semi-sprawling, semi-determinate, about 80 cm high.
- Variety Nikita, no more than 70 cm high, a standard type bush, and the fruits are yellowish-red, with juicy and tasty pulp and a cuboid shape. Such peppers are not large in size and weight (only about 70 g). However, it is versatile in use.
- Triton is a fast-growing, branched plant up to 60 cm high. The fruits are bright red, very juicy and fusiform. The advantage is in perfect presentation and good yield (approximately from 9.5 to 10.5 kg per square meter).
- The fruits of Interventa are red with strong, fragrant and sweet pulp, heart-prismatic in shape. The weight of such a fruit is about 225 g, and the yield is from 8 to 10 kg per square meter. Branched bush, vigorous and semi-sprawling. The pros are great productivity and great taste.
- The medal is a tall, compact and well-leafy bush with sweet, red and wide prismatic fruits. By weight, the fruits reach only 60 g, and the yield is relatively low - about 7 kg. However, this variety is resistant, despite the Novosibirsk climate, to strong temperature changes.
- The last variety that can be planted in the Urals is Zarya. This is one of the very early varieties of excellent quality peppers. The fruit has a beautiful creamy yellow or red color. The weight of one pepper is from 280 to 300 g, and the yield is up to one ton per hundred square meters. The plant is medium-sized and spreading.
Choosing the right site for planting
The main rule when choosing a site for planting pepper is the more sun, the better. It is important that during the day he is under the sun and does not fall into a shady shelter.
The next point is that it grows in loose soil rich in nutrients. However, you do not need to over-fertilize it with droppings or fresh mullein, as well as various trace elements and preparations.
The landing site must be protected from drafts and strong gusts of wind. They also grow better in the soil of moderate watering, and do not like excess moisture.
Do not forget about crop rotation. The basic rules are simple: the best predecessors are beans, cabbage, peas and cucumbers; the best neighbors are tomatoes, as they scare away aphids from this delicate plant. The smell of bush beans is also effective in this regard, it will scare off any pests that decide to interfere with the sprout of pepper. From the north, corn is traditionally planted to protect the vegetable plant from cold winds.
Garden bed preparation
For the further correct development of seedlings, it is necessary to find time when moving to the street. Ogorodnikov is often worried about when to plant planting material. This time comes when frosts pass, and falls in the month of May in the south, and in Siberia in mid-June.
There are some secrets that contribute to good seedling growth and bountiful harvests. Usually the garden bed is prepared in advance and in several stages. Closer to autumn, you should dig up the soil, putting a little fertilizer with phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium in the ground. With the onset of spring and warming, every square meter must be treated with ammonium nitrate. In order to avoid diseases, a couple of days before the relocation of the shoots, it is advised to water the soil with the following solution: dilute one spoonful of copper sulfate in a bucket of water.
Peppers are too well pollinated to be planted side by side. To obtain pure varieties, it is better to select different corners at a distance from each other. If this is not possible due to the meager size of the garden, you can make a screen of plants higher. For this, the aforementioned corn or beans are suitable.
And most importantly - never plant sweet peppers near bitter ones, otherwise the whole crop will be bitter.
When the seedlings reach about 55-60 days after sowing, planting in open ground is possible, taking into account two weeks for germination. This happens around the end of May, when the air temperature at night does not drop below + 14-16 degrees. In turn, this means that seeds should be sown closer to mid-March, and for greenhouse conditions, seeds should be sown in mid-February.
Transplant into open soil
Cloudy weather is chosen for this important step. Better yet, start planting peppers in the morning or late in the evening, when planting peppers does not fall under the direct scorching rays of the sun. To avoid damage to the root boring, pour the soil in cups so that it falls out in one lump. Since the leaves are very delicate, it is also worth watching them during the whole process. The 40 * 40 cm scheme is considered the most optimal for planting and caring for pepper seedlings in the Urals. It is recommended to make the depth of the hole a little more than the height of the container, and fill it with two liters of warm water.
The seedlings are set vertically, the roots are covered with earth, and the leaves are tied to a peg.
This is followed by the construction of a greenhouse from a film. The number of layers depends on the degree of cold, the characteristic area. The appearance of new leaves will serve as a good sign that the bore has started and got stronger. However, in the Urals one should not relax, there the summer is full of surprises, and a film with a covering material should always be at hand.
Further care for seedlings in the Urals consists of the following steps:
- systematic watering in the absence of extreme heat (once every two days);
- loosening the soil (5-7 times during the season);
- fertilizing plants 2-3 times per season;
All efforts regarding the care of cultivated bell peppers should be aimed at creating the most comfortable conditions for the development of this fastidious plant. These are the usual procedures for garden crops, which are quite enough for a good harvest. For an extremely bountiful harvest, there are a few more secrets:
- moistening the earth, except for the last half month;
- bait bees with syrup saucers, or by spraying them on the leaves;
- the correct formation of the bush, which prevents the development of unnecessary shoots;
- removal of excess shoots every 10 days;
- obligatory watering of the beds after feeding.
Seeding ahead of time is considered a huge mistake, as a result of which the seedlings outgrow, and flowering and even peppercorns appear on it. This is fraught with long-term diseases and delays in plant development. If everything is done correctly and on time, growth is noticeable within a week.
Formation of pepper bushes
Formation is very important when growing medium-sized and tall plants of pepper, because the harvest itself will depend on it. After cutting off a few leaves on the trunk of the plant, about 3 side shoots will sprout. Of these, two strong shoots should be chosen, which will be the skeleton of the plant, and weak shoots must be pinched onto one sheet.
After the shoots start branching, you need to choose the strongest shoot, and it will be the main shoot. Weaker shoots should be pinched behind the first leaf, while leaving one fruit.
Moreover, every couple of days it is necessary to cut off the leaves, lateral and sterile shoots that are below the branching of the main stem. It is extremely important to tie each branch carefully in medium-sized and tall plants, because they are fragile and break easily.
While growing peppers is challenging, the results are worth it. Indeed, today there are many dishes where pepper is used, thanks to which your table diversifies. It can be used fresh, canned and frozen. Grow pepper using this technology and get an excellent harvest.