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Siderates are used in agriculture and on personal plots to fertilize the soil and improve its structure. It is a popular agricultural practice that increases yields. For the plants to bring maximum benefit, they must be planted correctly and on time. Consider when to sow greenhouse crops in the fall in the greenhouse, how to do it correctly. What varieties of green manure plants to choose for different types of crops.
What is it and what is it for
Siderata are plants of certain types that are sown in fields and plots, and then mowed, left to rot on the surface of ridges or embedded in the soil, where overheating also occurs. The green mass acts as an organic fertilizer; its quality can be compared to humus. In addition, the structure of the soil is improved and ennobled.
Siderata are not only fertilizers: while they grow in the beds, they suppress weeds, accumulate nitrogen near the roots, loosen the soil, saturate with oxygen, reduce the number of pests, and stop the spread of diseases.
When to sow siderates in the fall in a greenhouse
In autumn, sowing seeds in the greenhouse should be done after the final harvest, when plant residues have been removed. Depending on the culture that grew under the shelter, and the method - for digging or before winter - planting should be carried out at different times.
In order for green manure plants to grow a mass sufficient for embedding in the soil, they need to be sown from the end of August to the end of September. At the end of October and November, sow seeds that will remain overwintering and germinate only in spring.
What to plant?
Most of the green manure species belong to the cruciferous and cereal families. But for certain crops in the greenhouse, certain greenhouse varieties are suitable. There are also limitations: you cannot choose green manure and a culture that belong to the same family, so as not to tolerate diseases. If green fertilizer is used on the site for several seasons in a row, then you cannot plant the same plant, you need to alternate green manure species.
For tomatoes, peppers and eggplants
For members of the nightshade family, legumes, grains, and crucifers are good predecessors. You can also sow phacelia, goat's rue, lupine, buckwheat. Any of these plants can increase the yield of popular garden crops by a third. And when planting seedlings in the soil where green manure had grown before, it will protect it from pests.
After nightshades, it is recommended to sow radish, mustard, phacelia. Plants will cleanse the soil of late blight pathogens and fill it with nitrogen.
Cucumbers have a superficial root system, they take food from the upper layer of the soil, therefore it should be the most fertilized. Almost all common greenhouse crops can be planted under this crop in a greenhouse. From spring and the whole summer, you can also sow plants in the aisles. This will only improve the taste of the cucumbers. It is not recommended to sow rye before the crop. It is believed that it suppresses not only weeds, but also cucumbers.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
After greenhouse cucumbers, legumes or vetch-oat mixture are sown. Plants will be able to restore depleted soil and bring nitrogen into it.
For other cultures
In the greenhouse in the fall, you can sow any green manure, if they can sprout and grow 15-20 cm before the arrival of cold weather. If it is supposed to leave green shoots for the winter, then winter cereals can be sown. You can also mix seeds from different crops and sow at the same time. The benefits of the mixture will be greater, since all plants act on the soil in different ways and accumulate elements in different ratios. This will allow the land to be prepared universally for different crops.
How to sow green manure correctly
First you need to prepare the beds in the greenhouse. Remove all remaining stems, roots and tops from the previous crop. Take everything outside and burn. Dig up the ground, pick out the roots of the weeds. Level the soil, sow green manure to a depth of 3-4 cm. Sprinkle with water and sprinkle with a thin layer of soil. Compact the soil a little. Sprinkle with a layer of humus to help the plants grow faster.
When sowing before winter, you need to scatter the seeds thicker, some part may not survive the winter.
In frosts, if the plants in the greenhouse remain unmown, they are sprinkled with snow. In the spring, it is necessary to sow crops when at least 2 weeks have passed after harvesting green manure. This is necessary so that in the soil they have already begun to overheat and feed the seedlings.
Greenhouse greenhouse crops are a great way to prepare and fertilize the soil, cleanse it of pathogens and harmful insects, and make the soil structure better. Experts advise sowing greenhouse plants in the greenhouse for at least 3-4 years in a row to see the result and fix it.